Are Puffer Fish Poisonous to Touch

Puffer fish are among nature’s most wondrous aquatic creatures. They are known to possess many defense mechanisms, including sharp spines and poison.

You might be wondering if Puffer fish are poisonous to touch. These fish can transmit their toxins through their skin. This means you can be poisoned by simply touching them.

In this guide we will examine whether Puffer Fish are poisonous to touch. We will also explain how to stay safe if you encounter a Puffer Fish.

Puffer Fish Defense Mechanisms

Many fish species possess special defense mechanisms to protect themselves from predators. Examples include spiky exoskeletons and poisonous toxins.

Puffer Fish stand out because they possess both spikes and poison. In fact, both defense mechanisms work together to protect their spines from various types of predators.


You may have seen videos of Puffer Fish “puffing up” in the water when they encounter predators. 

Puffer fish accomplish this by opening their mouths and ingesting large quantities of water or air quickly. Doing so helps them inflate to more than twice their usual size.

The Puffer Fish’s skin’s spines also protrude out in this puffed up state. As a result, any predator that attempts to eat the fish in this state will run into a painful experience.

For this reason, many predators avoid Puffer Fish that have activated this defense mechanism.


Puffer Fish contain a dangerous toxin known as Tetrodotoxin (TTX). This toxin is present in their sex organs and liver in high concentrations. However, it is also found on their skin.

This means it is possible to come into contact with this toxin if you touch a Puffer Fish. Many sea creatures are aware that Puffer Fish possess this toxin and steer clear of them.

How Dangerous is a Puffer Fish’s Toxin?

There are 57 known species of Puffer Fish. Most of these are poisonous and contain high concentrations of Tetrodotoxin. 

Tetrodotoxin stands out in the world of natural toxins because it takes a very small amount to kill an animal or a person. This substance is roughly 1,200 times as poisonous as cyanide. 

You would need to come in direct contact with just a needle-head amount of Tetrodotoxin to die. An adult Puffer Fish contains enough Tetrodotoxin to kill up to 30 people.

Can You Die From Touching a Puffer Fish?

In theory, it is possible to die from touching a Puffer Fish. However, there aren’t any reported instances of this occurring.

There are many videos showing people handling Puffer Fish with their bare hands on the internet. In one example, a person is able to touch the fish without experiencing any issues.

In a different video, a person’s hands can be seen turning red after touching a Puffer Fish as it puffs up.

The first video would imply that touching Puffer Fish with your bare hands isn’t dangerous. However, the second video shows otherwise. 

The simplest explanation is that the Puffer Fish in the first video belongs to a species with low Toxin levels. The Puffer Fish in the second video belongs to a more toxic species.

It is better to be safe than sorry. So you should generally avoid touching any Puffer Fish with your bare hands.

Can You Die if a Puffer Fish Bites You?

As mentioned earlier, Puffer Fish have many ways to ward off predators. If a potential threat isn’t driven away by the Puffer Fish’s spikes and toxins, it may resort to biting them. 

A Puffer Fish bite can be painful. However, you might be surprised to learn that this bite isn’t venomous.

For this reason, you are more likely to be in danger from touching a Puffer Fish’s skin than from being bitten.

How Do People Die from Puffer Fish Poison? 

Most human deaths associated with Puffer Fish aren’t from touching the creature. Instead, people often die from eating them.

As mentioned earlier, the Puffer Fish’s liver and sex organs contain the highest Tetrodotoxin concentrations. This means there is a good chance you will die by eating these organs.

Is It Possible to Eat Puffer Fish Safely?

Many people die from eating Puffer Fish annually. You might be wondering why people eat this fish despite knowing about its poison.

Puffer Fish is considered a delicacy in Japanese cuisine. It is served deep-fried or as sashimi. Some places in Japan also serve sake made from Puffer Fish. 

Many people are willing to pay lots of money to get the chance to eat this exotic fish. However, it is only possible to eat Puffer Fish safely if it has been prepared properly.

The Japanese chefs that prepare Puffer Fish for consumption spend many years training. They learn how to identify the poisonous parts of the fish and remove them properly.

People typically die from eating Puffer Fish only when it has been prepared by an inexperienced or untrained chef. 

For this reason, you should avoid eating this exotic fish unless you are sure it has been prepared by a highly trained professional.

Symptoms of Pufferfish Poisoning

People who have been affected by Puffer Fish toxins experience a range of symptoms. These vary from mild to extreme depending on the concentration they were exposed to.

Tetrodotoxin affects the body’s nervous system and blocks communication between the body and the brain. This can lead to many issues.

Someone that has consumed Tetrodotoxin will begin experiencing mouth numbness or tingling within 10 to 45 minutes. They may also begin salivating and/or vomiting.

In more extreme cases, the victim may lose consciousness and/or become paralyzed. Some people also experience respiratory failure, which may lead to death.

What to Do If You Have Pufferfish Poisoning

If you suspect you have been poisoned from consuming Puffer Fish, you should seek medical care as soon as possible. 

If you cannot get to a hospital immediately, you should attempt to vomit the Puffer Fish meat you have consumed. However, this is possible only within the first three hours.

If you have become paralyzed from the toxin, you will need to be put on an artificial respiratory system at the hospital.

How is Puffer Fish Poisoning Treated?

There is no easy way to cure Puffer Fish poisoning. Instead, the body must process the toxin naturally.

Medical professionals will attempt to empty the victim’s stomach to ensure no additional toxins are released during the food digestion process. 

Following this, they may provide the victim with activated charcoal to soak up some of the toxin. They will then keep the victim on life support until the poison’s effects wear off.

Is There an Antidote for Puffer Fish Poisoning?

There is currently no antidote available for Puffer Fish poisoning. However, there is plenty of research being conducted in this area.

Pufferfish poisoning sends hundreds of people to the hospital annually and has led to many deaths. For this reason, many researchers have made creating an antidote a top priority.

Can Puffer Fish Toxins Be Useful?

Tetrodotoxin can be deadly to both humans and marine life. However, this compound may hold some important uses in medicine.

Some researchers believe the toxin could be used as a local pain reliever if it is administered in controlled settings. This means it may help people who suffer from chronic pain.

Tetrodotoxin is also believed to affect some types of organisms in different ways. For example, marine researchers have observed dolphins consuming this toxin intentionally.

These dolphins hold Puffer Fish in their mouths and become intoxicated from the small Tetrodotoxin doses they receive.

Other Poisonous Marine Life

Puffer Fish are far from being the only poisonous marine life in the oceans. Some other marine creatures to avoid include:


Stonefish are unique fish with a stone-like appearance. They use this characteristic to their advantage by camouflaging themselves among stones on the seafloor.

These fish have a row of spines that can deliver deadly venom. They involuntarily expel this poison when pressure is applied to their skin.

Being stung by a Stonefish causes swelling, muscle weakness, extreme pain, and temporary paralysis.


Lionfish are found along North America’s Atlantic Coast. These fish have poisonous spines covering different parts of their body.

Being stung by a Lionfish can cause intense pain, rapid swelling, and even cardiovascular collapse.


Boxfish are adjacent to the Puffer Fish family. While Puffer Fish are distinctly oblong shaped in their unpuffed state, Boxfish have a more box-like appearance.

Boxfish aren’t as poisonous as Puffer Fish. However, they are dangerous because they can expel their toxins into the water around them. 

This means you can be poisoned by a Boxfish without touching them.

How to Avoid Being Poisoned By a Puffer Fish

Puffer Fish are found in oceans across the globe. Most of these species are poisonous, so you should avoid touching them if you see one in the wild.

You should also avoid eating Puffer Fish at restaurants. The only exception is if you are certain that it has been prepared by a highly-trained chef.

Puffer Fish poisoning can lead to life threatening consequences, so it is better to be safe than sorry.

Other articles you may also like